Report of the President of NAAS Yaroslav Gadzal at the meeting of the General Assembly of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine
Dear members of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine! Dear researchers, delegated by the staff of scientific institutions of the Academy, and dear guests!
Over the last century, mankind, gaining access to fossil energy sources, is constantly increasing the consumption of energy resources. For example, from 1965 to 2019, global energy consumption increased from 43 thousand TWh to 162,000 TWh, almost 4 times. In particular, the consumption of petroleum products during this time increased 3 times, coal – 2.7 times, natural gas – 6.2 times (Fig. 1).
Such intensive use of fossil fuels has led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3) into the Earth’s atmosphere more than 3 times. If in 1965 CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil energy sources amounted to 11.3 billion tons, in 2019 the atmosphere released 36.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide (Fig. 2). The increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide, as well as other harmful gases, in the Earth’s atmosphere has led to global environmental changes (Fig. 3), which led to climate change, the main indicator of which is the average temperature on the planet.
Analyzing the structure of global greenhouse gas emissions by industry, we can conclude that almost three quarters of emissions are due to energy consumption.
The main source of greenhouse gases in crop production is the respiration of both soil and plants, burning of plant residues, application of mineral fertilizers and more. Industrial livestock emits 39% of all methane and 65% of nitrogen dioxide. Methane is formed during digestion in animals and due to the large amount of manure that accumulates on farms.
Achieving net zero emissions requires a systematic approach and innovation in many sectors of the economy, especially in the energy sector and agriculture.
The direct indicator of the progress of Green Growth as a component of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) is the transition to a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy, preservation of natural resources, improving the quality of life. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (December 11, 1997), including its commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, provides for the promotion of sustainable and sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change.
This strategic direction of development is confirmed by the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly of September 25, 2015 № 70/1 (globally), pursuant to which the Decree of the President of Ukraine of September 30, 2019 № 722/2019 “On the Sustainable Development Goals of Ukraine period until 2030 ”(at the national level) one of the Sustainable Development Goals until 2030 is declared to take urgent measures to combat climate change and its consequences. The European Green Deal 2030, to which Ukraine has joined, is a roadmap for transforming Europe into a climate-neutral continent by 2050.